Of the total of people living with someone of the same sex, 20, are women and 14, are men.
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According to a survey, LGBT Chileans, compared to the general Chilean population, were much more likely to have no religious affiliation. Although Chile has been considered a conservative country regarding homosexuality, according to several studies, this perception has changed considerably in society through the years. According to a study by Fundación Ideas and the University of Chile, In , a Fundación Chile 21 survey conducted in 10 cities across the country, revealed a significant drop in intolerance toward homosexuals. Chile ranked 11 out of 39 countries surveyed.
According to the XIV version of the Annual Report on the Human Rights of Sexual Diversity in Chile for the year , from to there were reported cases and allegations involving homophobia and transphobia. Thirty two of these cases were homicides, while others include physical attacks, discrimination in the workplace and in the school system, harassment, police abuses, and statements that violate the dignity of LGBT people.
In March , a young gay man named Daniel Zamudio was brutally beaten and tortured for several hours by four attackers, allegedly linked to a neo-Nazi band. Because of the large number of hate crimes , the government passed an anti-discrimination law in April In the early part of the twenty-first century, greater publicity has been generated about LGBT people in Chile and the discrimination and harassment that they face, specifically involving the Chilean state. Some of the more notable examples of this include the following:. In January , the Chilean Supreme Court removed married  judge Daniel Calvo from his position on the Santiago Court of Appeals, after media reports that he visited a sauna frequented by gay men.
The story broke following the arrest of a Chilevisión TV editor for illegally taping, and then broadcasting, a conversation in the judge's chambers. Judge Calvo, investigating the case of an accused businessman running a child pornography ring, was taped in his office in a discussion with the owner of a gay sauna, in which he acknowledged being a former client. In , the Chilean Supreme Court confirmed a lower court's decision that stripped former judge Karen Atala of custody of her three daughters because she is a lesbian.
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In , the Chilean government launched a public service announcement which referred to spousal or domestic abusers as maricón , which sparked outrage from LGBT rights advocates at home and abroad. The key of the campaign was based in the polysemy of the word maricón , which in Chile means gay , treacherous , abuser , and unfair. In one of the spots, the well known gay photographer Jordi Castell says " Maricón es el que le pega a una mujer ", i.
In another spot, football referee Pablo Pozo says the same sentence, which in this case means " maricón is the one who abuses a woman and not a supposedly unfair referee ". In the early 20th century in Chile, the artistic and literary circles mainly lie in Santiago where homosexuality was lived freely but not publicly. Even many homosexuals were very influential at the time. Chilean literature in those years began to develop profusely gay-themed stories, which began with the novel La sombra inquieta by Diaz Arrieta, published in , where the first effeminate character of national literature is included.
Although the novel was first published in Spain, it is considered the first in Latin America that explicitly discusses the relationship between a same-sex couple. In , Joaquín Edwards Bello described in La chica del Crillón a lesbian character, an issue that was rarely mentioned. Several heterosexual authors like Alejandro Jodorowsky and Enrique Lafourcade shared with homosexual artists who boosted their careers.
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Lafourcade devoted important roles to homosexuality in his early works as Pena de muerte and Para subir al cielo The relative openness of the topic in aristocratic, intellectual and artistic circles, influenced by events in Europe, allowed the publication of some foreign literary works that also portrayed homosexuality.
Despite this relative openness, rejection outside these circles was widespread, so many important authors hide their homosexuality in society. This was the case of José Donoso and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature Gabriela Mistral , two of the greatest writers of literature in the country. Only after the death of both and the publication of their personal epistolary work in the early 21st century, it was discovered their homosexuality, which had long been a taboo subject. Both Mistral and Donoso reflected in their letters the pain of not being able to live their personal relationships.
Since the late 20th century and early 21st century, more writers started to appear, who apart from declaring themselves as gays, homosexuality is reflected in different ways in their works. In he also published the novel No ficción , a work that explores the homosexual world. Among other prominent writers, Pedro Lemebel is considered as an influential writer for homosexual and protest literature, his irreverent style has become known throughout Latin America. As a performance artist and writer, his work is characterized by the use of provocation and resentment as tools for political and social criticism.
In he published his first book of chronicles La esquina es mi corazón , other important works are the chronicles De perlas y cicatrices and Adiós mariquita linda Lemebel died in January because of laryngeal cancer. In he published his first book and since then has maintained a prolific career. Simonetti is also currently an activist for the rights of sexual minorities in Chile.
The first prominent gay musician was the Chilean folklorist and composer Rolando Alarcón , who had to live his homosexuality in secret most of the time due to the prevailing hostility against homosexuals in the midth century. Currently, among Chilean musicians who have openly declared their homosexuality are the singer Giovanni Falchetti, singer and music producer Ignacio Redard, and indie electropop musician and singer Javiera Mena.
In the underground scene stands out the transgressive singer, drag queen and performance artist Hija de Perra , who passed away in Only in the late 20th century and early 21st century, some Chilean musicians have released songs that deal with LGBT issues, which have been embraced by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community in the country. In the s, the singer Nicole wrote the song "Sirenas" inspired by the love story of a female friend who had discovered that she liked girls.
Singer and actress Sofía Oportot released in the song "Entender" in which she assumes and sings with no complex: Oportot is one of the most active singers in the gay underground scene in Chile. Loving relationships and sexuality has been a recurring theme in his songs and musical productions.
The song talks about discrimination against the LGBT community. Sexual diversity has been a banner of struggle of this singer who has been permanently committed to the cause. From his album Rebeldes stand out two songs.
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Also, "Tatuaje" a love song dedicated to another man, apparently the first of its kind in Chile according to him. Television is one of the most popular and influential media throughout the country. Chilean television has undergone a process of openness towards homosexuality from in terms of visibility in series and soap operas telenovelas including openly gay and lesbians characters, plus the emergence of openly gay people in other TV programs.
There have been many Chilean gay characters in telenovelas since the s. In , the first relevant gay character in a telenovela was played by actor Felipe Braun in Machos.
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According to critics, this telenovela, broadcast by Canal 13 , was the first to show the conflict of homosexuality in the family in a more serious and complex way. Different Chilean telenovelas have made visible the relationships of gays and lesbians during the last decade; these are: During is transmitted for the first time in open signal two nationally produced programmes with LGBT exclusive content. The art of Drag", is a talent show and reality show broadcast by TV network Mega. Hosted by Karla Constant and with the special participacion of drag diva Nicole Gaultier as coach and judge.
The television miniseries Zamudio: Lost at night premiered in March , aired by TVN channel. It describes the homophobic murder of Daniel Zamudio , and it was the first to show gay sex scenes on television in prime time.
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The first episode of the series was re-played by the TV channel on Good Friday, without controversy. Daniel Emilfork , was the most prominent Chilean film actor during the mid- and late 20th century, acting in numerous films in Europe. In , he decided to leave Chile and settled in France, due to the homophobic persecution that existed in his country.
Homosexuality in Chilean cinema is a subject that is rarely portrayed and has done in a more explicit way in the early 21st century. The first gay character in a Chilean film was played by actor Luis Alarcón in Caluga o menta Also, the feature films Naomi Campbel , La Visita , and documentary film El hombre nuevo The LGBT-related short films include: Although Chile does not have a gay tourist destination recognized internationally, in Santiago , its capital city, has been developed gradually and to a lesser extent compared to the other capitals of the Southern Cone , a LGBT culture urban due to greater social acceptance of homosexuality, which is reflected by the appearance of a specifically gay-oriented tourism offer, such as gay bars, clubs, hotels, cafes, restaurants and saunas.
Although there is not a gay neighborhood as such in Santiago, the Bellavista and Lastarria - Bellas Artes neighborhoods are considered gay-friendly due to the considerable turnout of LGBT people and to being areas of the city with many cultural attractions and bohemian life. According to travel agencies dedicated to gay tourism in the country, San Pedro de Atacama , Easter Island , Torres del Paine National Park , Santiago, Valparaiso and the vineyards are the favorite places for gay tourists.
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LGBT people who choose Chile as a tourist destination are consolidated couples with high purchasing power who like design hotels, trendy things and luxury. Nevertheless, the National Tourism Service Sernatur has no specific policies towards them. The organization is aimed at promoting the growth of companies and professionals committed to diversity in the country, providing them with tools for their development, promotion of good practices, networks of support and commercialization of its products and services at national and international level.
The initiative also emerges with the objective of promoting and monitoring policies and regulations in labor and trade matters that favor the interests of the LGBT community, and contribute to the economic, social and sustainable development of the country. LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: LGBT rights in Chile. LGBT history in Chile. Protestantism 4. Other religions Unaffiliated No data. LGBT portal Chile portal. Retrieved 9 August Sin Etiquetas in Spanish.
In Spanish. Gay Star News. Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 21 January Retrieved 11 May Pousta in Spanish.
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